of Bone and
Yuehuei H. An, M.D.
Robert A. Draughn, D.Sc.
To order contact: CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, 1999
The skeletal system gives the body it's form, facilitates movement, and protects internal organs from traumatic forces. Any disease, drug, or biological process that influences bone directly influences the fundamental mechanical function of the skeleton. Skeletal imaging data and quantitative assessments of bone composition, and histomorphology are often important only because they reflect something about mechanical competence. To truly assess the mechanical competence of the skeleton, however, it is imperative that we assess the mechanical characteristics of the bone and bone-implant constructs.
Early investigations of the mechanical properties of bone in the last half of the twentieth century by Evans, Yamada, Katz, Ascenzi, Currey, Burstein, Bonfield and Lanyon helped form the modern foundation for how bones should be tested and viewed from a mechanical and material perspective. From these initial pioneers, new investigators began to build a research literature and a series of laboratory approaches for the mechanical testing of bone and bone-implant systems. The mechanical testing of bone and the bone-implant interface has progressively become an important aspect of a wide variety of research projects on bone growth, adaptation, regeneration, and aging. Through this work, the material mechanical properties of bone have become better understood and testing protocols have become more standardized.
This text by editors Yuehuei H. An and Robert A. Draughn marks a transition in the role of mechanical testing of bone and bone-implant systems. It addresses the field of bone mechanics not so much as an arena of basic science but rather as a compendium of practical research tools and mechanical assay techniques. It is a wonderful addition to the literature in that it summarizes much of the data that has been generated in recent years. The greatest value of the book, however, is that it provides a synopsis of laboratory approaches that a broad range of investigators have used and continue to use in their researches.
The treatise begins at a very basic level and can therefore serve as an effective introduction to those without significant previous experience in bone mechanics. The 39 chapters of the book are separated into three sections that progress from concise descriptions of techniques used to characterize and test bone to more specialized laboratory studies. The perspectives of the many contributors to the book that work in many different laboratories contribute to the richness and breadth of the book. The coherence of the book is maintained under the clear direction of the editors. The emphasis throughout is on teaching the reader "how to do it". This theme is maintained throughout and is surely enhanced by the involvement of the editors as co-authors in many chapters.
This book will serve as a comprehensive primer for the mechanical testing of bone. For new investigators in this area, it will be invaluable. For the more experience investigators, it will serve as a touchstone for evaluating new testing protocols and data. This text has a great deal to offer all of us.
Dennis R. Carter, Ph.D.
Director, Palo Alto VA Rehabilitation R & D Center
Professor, Biomechanical Engineering Division,
Mechanical Engineering Department, Stanford University
Biomechanics is an integral part of the study of bone as an organ or tissue. Mechanical testing of bone specimens is a basic method in bone-related research. The mechanical properties of whole bones or bone tissues and bone-implant interfaces are equally important as their morphological or structural aspects. The former is evaluated by mechanical testing and the latter is mostly studied using histological techniques.
This book is an outgrowth of the editors' own quest for information on mechanical testing of bone and, more importantly, a response to significant needs in the orthopaedic research community. Most researchers are not well trained in biomechanics and assistance from an expert is not always readily available. What many researchers really need to know are basic mechanical principles in bone-related research and most importantly how to conduct mechanical testing of bone specimens. This book is designed to be an experimental guide for orthopaedic or dental research residents, bioengineering graduate students, orthopaedic or dental researchers, biomaterials scientists, laboratory technicians, and anyone who is not well trained in biomechanics and plans to conduct mechanical testing of bone specimens. Most readers belong to societies in the fields of orthopaedic or dental research, biomechanics, or biomaterials, such as the Orthopaedic Research Society, American Society of Biomechanics, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, Society for Biomaterials, or Materials Research Society. This text is intended to be a "beginner's" guide and no prior training in biomechanics is required to understand the contents. It should also serve as a good handbook for biomechanical and bioengineering researchers and students at all levels.
This is the first inclusive and organized reference book on how to perform mechanical testing of bone. The topic has not been adequately covered by any of the existing textbooks on bone biomechanics. The book has thirty-nine chapters divided into three major parts: Part I - mechanical properties of bone and general considerations and basic facilities for mechanical testing; Part II - specific mechanical testing procedures on bone tissues; and Part III - mechanical testing procedures on the bone-implant interface.
The book is designed to be concise as well as inclusive and more practical than theoretical. The text is simple and straightforward. Numerous diagrams (~150), tables (~150), line drawings (~150), and photographs (~150) are included to help readers better understand the main principles. Full bibliographies at the end of each chapter guide readers to more detailed information. In addition, the appendix lists some major periodicals and publications related to mechanical testing of bone. A book of this length cannot discuss every method in biomechanical testing of bone that has been conducted over the years, but it is hoped that major methods and their applications have been included.
Yuehuei H. An, M.D.
October 1999, Charleston, SC
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
1. Basic structures of bone
2. Basic concepts of mechanical property measurement and bone biomechanics
Yuehuei H. An, William R. Barfield, and Robert A. Draughn
3. Mechanical properties of bone
Yuehuei H. An
4. Factors affecting mechanical properties of bone
Peter Zioupos, Chris W. Smith, and Yuehuei H. An
5. Basic facilities and instruments for mechanical testing of bone
Christopher V. Bensen and Yuehuei H. An
6. Methods of evaluation for bone dimensions, densities, contents, morphology, and structures
Yuehuei H. An, William R. Barfield, and Ivars Knets
7. General considerations of mechanical testing
Yuehuei H. An and Christopher V. Bensen
8. Hierarchical testing of trabecular and cortical Bone
C. Edward Hoffler, Barbara R. McCreadie, Erica A. Smith, and Steven A. Goldstein
9. Non-destructive mechanical testing technique
Frank Linde and Ivan Hvid
10. Synthetic materials and structures used as models for bone
John A. Szivek
II. METHODS OF MECHANICAL TESTING OF BONE
11. Compressive and tensile testing of bone
Tony S. Keller and Michael A. K. Liebschner
12. Bending tests of bone
Mark D. Markel and Mandi J. Lopez
13. Torsional testing of bone
Benjamin Furman and Subrata Saha
14. Indentation testing of bone
Brodie E. McKoy, Qian Kang, and Yuehuei H. An
15. Penetration testing of bone using an osteopenetrometer
Ivan Hvid and Frank Linde
16. Microhardness testing of bone
Sarandeep S. Huja, Thomas R. Katona, and W. Eugene Roberts
17. Nanoindentation testing of cortical and trabecular lamellar bone
Jae-Young Rho and George M. Pharr
18. Micromechanical testing of single osteon
Maria-Grazia Ascenzi, Alessandro Benvenuti, and Antonio Ascenzi
19. Micromechanical testing of single trabeculae
Peter L. Mente
20. Strain gauge for evaluating mechanical properties of bone
John A. Szivek and Vasanti M. Gharpuray
21. Screw pullout test for evaluating mechanical properties of bone
Matt Crum, Frank A. Young, Jr., and Yuehuei H. An
22. Viscoelastic properties of bone and testing methods
23. Observation of material fracture mode using a new SEM equipped with a built-in mechanical testing device
Rong-Ming Wang and Yuehuei H. An
24. Ultrasonic methods for evaluating mechanical properties of bone
25. Evaluating mechanical properties of bone using scanning acoustic microscopy
Charles H. Turner and J. Lawrence Katz
26. Peripheral quantitative CT (pQCT) for evaluating structural and mechanical properties of small bone
José Luis Ferretti
27. Computer modeling for evaluating trabecular bone mechanics
Rakesh Saxena and Tony S. Keller
III. METHODS OF MECHANICAL TESTING OF BONE-IMPLANT INTERFACE
28. Factors affecting the strength of bone-implant interface
Brodie E. McKoy, Yuehuei H. An, and Richard J. Friedman
29. Implant pushout and pullout test
Aivars Berzins and Dale R. Sumner
30. The validity of a single push-out test
Wouter J. A. Dhert and John A. Jansen
31. Tensile testing of bone-implant interface
32. Fracture toughness tests of bone-implant interface
Xiaodu Wang, Kyriacos A. Athanasiou, and C. Mauli Agrawal
33. In vitro measurements of implant stability
Aivars Berzins and Dale R. Sumner
34. In vitro testing of the stability of acetabular components
James R. Davis, Robert A. Lofthouse, and Riyaz H. Jinnah
35. In vitro testing of the stability of femoral components
Sanjiv H. Naidu, Fadi M. Khoury, and John M. Cuckler
36. Screw pullout test
Lisa A. Ferrara and Timothy C. Ryken
37. Finite element analysis for evaluating mechanical properties of bone-implant interface
Keith R. Williams
38. Fatigue test on screw fixation of bone and composite model bone
William S. Pietrzak, David R. Sarver, and David H. Kohn
39. Testing intervertebral stability after spinal fixation
Kenneth S. James and A. U. Daniels
- Useful journal or book publications
- Resources for mechanical testing of bone